Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Stigmella continuella

Stigmella continuella (Stainton, 1856)

double-barred pigmy

Stigmella continuella mine

Betula pubescens, Overveen



Egg at the underside, often in a vein axil. The mine is a slender, little widening corridor. Its first part is strongly contorted; the leaf tissue that is cut off thereby is killed, mostly resulting in a brown spot. The remainder of the corridor in contrast is very little contorted, often remarkably straight, when it runs alongside a vein. The corridor is almost completely filled with coiled frass, that is green when fresh, brown later. Pupation external.


Betulaceae, monophagous

Betula nana, pendula, pubescens.


Larvae in Britain in June – July and September – October (Emmet, 1983a); in Scandinavia only one generation, with larvae in July – August (Johansson ao, 1990a).


BE recorded (Phegea, 2009).

NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a;, 2009).

LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009).

distribution within Europe

From Fennoscandia to the Pyrenees, Alps, and Hungary, and from Ireland to Central Russia and the Ukraine (Fauna Europaea, 2009).


The larva is yellow, but appears green when inside the mine. See Gustafsson & van Nieukerken (1990a) for a description.


Nepticula continuella.


Anisimovas, Diškus & Stonis (2006a), Bachmaier (1965a), Bengtsson (2008a), Borkowski (1969a), Buhr (1935a), J Černý (2001a), Diškus, Navickaitė & Stonis (2011a), Diškus & Stonis (2012a), Emmet (197aa, 1983a), Gustafsson (1985a), Gustafsson & van Nieukerken (1990a), Hering (1925a, 1927b, 1957a), Johansson ao (1990a), Kasy (1985a), Kozlov, van Nieukerken, Zverev & Zvereva (2013a), Kuchlein & Donner (1993a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), A & Z Laštuvka (1997a), van Nieukerken (1986a), van Nieukerken, A & Z Laštuvka (2006a), van Nieukerken, Zolotuhin & Mistchenko (2004a), Nowakowski (1954a), De Prins & Steeman (2011a), De Prins, Steeman & Sierens (2016a), Robbins (1991a), Schütze (1931a), Skala (1939a, 1951a), Sønderup (1949a), Surányi (1942a), Szőcs (1977a), Viramo (1962a)m Yefremova & Kravchenko (2015a), Zoerner (1969a, 1970a).

Last modified 23.vii.2019