Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Stigmella lapponica

Stigmella lapponica (Wocke, 1862)

drab birch pigmy

Stigmella lapponica mine

Betula pubescens, Bergen NH

same mine, detail


Oviposition generally at the underside of the leaf. The mine is a slender corridor that hardly widens, even towards the end. The first third is stuffed with diffuse greenish brown frass. After a moult the frass pattern changes completely, into a very narrow, continuous black line. The mine often follows a thick vein over a long distance, but the larva is capable of crossing thick veins, even the midrib.


Betulaceae, monophagous

Betula humilis, nana, pendula, pubescens.


Larvae observed in Britain in June and early-July, with a few strays in October (Emmet, 1983a).


BE recorded (Phegea, 2009).

NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a;, 2009).

LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009).

distribution within Europe

Almost all Europe, except the Balkan Peninsula and the Mediterranean Islands (Fauna Europaea, 2009).


Pale yellowish green, head dark; the larva lies venter-downwards in the mine. See Gustafsson & van Nieukerken (1990a) for a detailed description.


Nepticula lapponica; N. lusatica Schütze, 1904; Stigmella vossensis (Grønlien, 1927).


Ahr (1966a), Anisimovas, Diškus & Stonis (2006a), Bengtsson (2008a), Borkowski (1969a), Buhr (1935a, 1964a), Černý (2001a), Csóka (2003a), Diškus & Stonis (2012a), Emmet (1971a, 1983a), van Frankenhuyzen & Houtman (1972a), Grønlien (1927a), Gustafsson (1985a), Gustafsson & van Nieukerken (1990a), Haase (1942a), Hering (1927b, 1930b, 1934b, 1957a), Huemer & Erlebach (2003a), Johansson ao (1990a), Klimesch (1950c), Kozlov, van Nieukerken, Zverev & Zvereva (2013a), Kozlov & Zvereva (2016a), Kuchlein & Donner (1993a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), Kurz (2016a), Laštůvka & Laštůvka (1997a, 2014a), Lepiforum (2024), Maček (1999a), van Nieukerken (1986a, 2006a), van Nieukerken, A & Z Laštůvka (2004a, 2006a), Navickaitė, Diškus & Stonis (2011a), van Nieukerken, Zolotuhin & Mistchenko (2004a), Nowakowski (1954a), De Prins (1998a), De Prins & Steeman (2011a), Pröse (1995a), Robbins (1991a), Schütze (1931a), Skala (1939a), Skorb, Diškus & Stonis (0000a), Sønderup (1949a), Steuer (1995a), Szőcs (1977a), Yefremova & Kravchenko (2015a), Zoerner (1970a).

Last modified 5.i.2024