Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Stigmella malella

Stigmella malella (Stainton, 1854)

apple pigmy

on Malus

Stigmella malella: mine on Malus domestica

Malus domestica, Hungary, Mosonmagyaróvár, 3.ix.2020 © László Érsek

Stigmella malella: mine on Malus domestica

occupied mine

Stigmella malella: mine on Malus domestica

mine lighted from behind

Stigmella malella:  larva

the yellow larva

Stigmella malella mine

Malus sylvestris, Leiden, 28.vii.2011 © Camiel Doorenweerd

Stigmella malella mine

Malus domestica, Luxemburg, Kautenbach, 11.ix.2002


Egg at the underside of the leaf, near a vein. The mine is quite variable. It is a rather strongly tortuous corridor, sometime widening only a little, sometimes strongly, at times ending in a secondary blotch. Frass black or brown, in a narrow central line.

host plants

woody Rosaceae, oligophagous

Malus astracanica, baccata, domestica, floribunda, fusca, ringo, sylvestris; Prunus.

Only rarely on Prunus.


Larvae in June – July and September – October (Emmet, 1983a).


BE recorded (Phegea, 2009).

NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a;, 2009).

LUX recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009).

distribution within Europe

Probably all Europe (Fauna Europaea, 2009).


Pale yellow. The larve is described by Briolini (1961a) and Gustafsson & van Nieukerken (1990a).

parasitoids, predators

Closterocerus lyonetiae; Neochrysocharis chlorogaster.


In the past mass occurrence on apple orchards have caused serious problems (Eveleens & Evenhuis, 1968a; Evenhuis, 1965a; van Frankenhuizen, 1965a; van Frankenhuyzen & Freriks, 1972a; Houtman, 1952a).


Anisimovas, Diškus & Stonis (2006a), Askew, Blasco-Zumeta & Pujade-Villar (2001a), Bengtsson (2008a), Borkowski (1969a), Briolini (1961a), Buhr (1935b, 1964a), Buszko & Baraniak (1989a), J Černý (2001a), Diškus & Stonis (2012a), Drăghia (1970a), Drăghia & Herțug (1985a), Emmet (1983a), Eveleens & Evenhuis (1968a), Evenhuis (1965a), van Frankenhuizen (1965a), van Frankenhuyzen & Freriks (1972a), van Frankenhuyzen & Houtman (1972a), van Frankenhuyzen Houtman & Kabos (1982a), Gustafsson (1985a), Gustafsson & van Nieukerken (1990a), Haase (1942a), Hartig (1939a), Hering (1957a), Houtman (1952a), Huber (1969a), Huemer (1985a, 1988a), Johansson ao (1990a), Klimesch (1936a, 1950c), Kuchlein & Donner (1993a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), Kurz (2016a), Kurz & Kurz (2007a), A & Z Laštuvka, 1997a), Maček (1999a), Matošević, Pernek, Dubravac & Barić (2009a), Navickaitė, Diškus & Stonis (2014), van Nieukerken (1986a, 2006a), van Nieukerken, A & Z Laštuvka (2004a, 2006a), van Nieukerken, Zolotuhin & Mistchenko (2004a), Nowakowski (1954a), Parenti & Varalda (2000a), De Prins (1998a), Robbins (1991a), Schütze (1931a), Sefrová (2005a), Skala (1939a, 1951a), Sønderup (1949a), Stammer (2016a), Starý (1930a), Steuer (1995a), Szőcs (1977a, 1978a, 1981a), Yefremova & Kravchenko (2015a), Zaberga, Legzdina, Otfinowski & Obelevičius (2014a), Zoerner (1969a, 1970a).

Last modified 8.vii.2022