Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Stigmella naturnella

Stigmella naturnella (Klimesch, 1936)

Stigmella naturnella: vacated mine on Betula pubescens

Betula pubescens, Belgium, prov. Limbourg, Halen, Zwarte Beek-Bakel, 6.viii.2017 © Carina Van Steenwinkel, det. Erik van Nieukerken

Stigmella naturnella: occupied mine

occupied mine (from van Nieukerken, 2020a)


Egg at upper- or underside of the leaf, usually free from a vein and close to the leaf edge. Long, slender, more or less sinuous corridor with a rather narrow, often broken central frass line, mostly not following a vein. The first section of the gallery lies in the sponge parenchyma, therefore appearing greenish.Exit slt upper-surface. Pupation external, in a thin, whitish cocoon.


Betulaceae, monophagous

Betula pendula, pubescens.


Two generations.


distribution within Europe

Czechia, Slovakia, Austria, Hungary, Italy; Central and East Russia (Fauna Europaea, 2009).


Whitish, head light brown; behind the head the first node of the ventral ganglion is visible as a conspicuous dark spot.


Strongly thermophilic species.


Baran (2013a), Haase (1942a), Hartig (1939a), Klimesch (1936a, 1948a, 1950c), Laštůvka & Laštuvka (1997a), Laštůvka, Laštůvka, Liška ao (1992a), Liška ao (2000a), van Nieukerken (1986a, 2020a), van Nieukerken, Zolotuhin & Mistchenko (2004a), Sefrová (2005a), Skala (1939a), Szőcs (1977a), Yefremova & Kravchenko (2015a).

Last modified 15.iii.2022