Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Stigmella paradoxa

Stigmella paradoxa (Frey, 1859)

scarce thorn pigmy

Stigmella paradoxa mine

Crataegus laevigata, Germany, Baden-Württemberg, Baden-Weiler

Stigmella paradoxa mine

same mine, detail

Stigmella paradoxa: mine on Crataegus monogyna

Crataegus monogyna, Belgium, prov. Namur, Agimont: at right the exit slit; © Jean-Yves Baugnée

Stigmella paradoxa: egg

egg at the underside of the leaf

Stigmella paradoxa: mine on Crataegus monogyna

Crataegus monogyna, Belgium, prov. Namur, Matagne-la-Grande, Commune Doische; © Steve Wullaert


Primary blotch in the tip of a leaf segment, without any preceding corridor. Frass in a central patch, pasted to the upper epidermis; when not feeding the larva retreats here. Around the centre some more frass grains are present, but not in an apparent spiral order. Oviposition is at the underside of the leaf at about 1 mm from the leaf margin (in Leudoptera malifoliella, with which confusion might be possible, the egg is deposited well away from the leaf margin).

host plants

Rosaceae, monophagous

Crataegus laevigata, monogyna, pentagyna.


Larvae in South England from mid-June till mid July (Emmet, 1983a); bivoltine in southeast Europe (Johansson ao, 1990a).


BE first record by Jean-Yves Baugnée in 2011 (De Prins ao).

NE not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009).

LUX recorded (Ellis: Kautenbach).

distribution within Europe

All Europe, except the High North (Fauna Europaea, 2009).


Pale green; see Gustafsson & van Nieukerken (1990a) for a description.


Nepticula paradoxa; Nepticula nitidella von Heinemann, 1862; Stigmella juryi Puplesis, 1991a.

parasitoids, predators

Chrysocharis pentheus.


Beiger (1979a), Bengtsson (2008a), Borkowski (1969a), Buszko & Baraniak (1989a), Buszko & Beshkov (2004a), Corley, Ferreira, Grundy, ao (2018a), Drăghia (1971a, 1972a), Emmet (1970a, 1971a, 1983a), Gustafsson (1985a), Gustafsson & van Nieukerken (1990a), Hering (1921a, 1932g, 1957a), Huemer (1985a, 1988a), Johansson ao (1990a), Kasy (1983a, 1987a), Klimesch (1940a, 1958c), Klimesch & Skala (1936c), A & Z Laštuvka (1997a, 2011a), Z & A Laštuvka (1998a), Maček (1999a), Navickaitė, Diškus & Stonis (2014), van Nieukerken (1986a), van Nieukerken, A & Z Laštuvka (2004a, 2006a), van Nieukerken, Zolotuhin & Mistchenko (2004a), Popescu-Gorj & Drăghia (1968a), De Prins, Steeman & Sierens (2016a), Puplesis (1991a), Robbins (1991a), Schütze (1931a), Sefrová (2005a), Skala (1939a), Skala & Zavřel (1945a), Sønderup (1949a), Szőcs (1968a, 1977a, 1978a, 1981a), Tomov & Krusteva (2007a), Triberti & Braggio (2011a), Wullaert (2016a), Yefremova & Kravchenko (2015a).

Last modified 2.vii.2022