Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Stigmella sakhalinella

Stigmella sakhalinella Puplesis, 1984

small birch pigmy

Stigmella sakhalinella mine

Betula pendula, Belgium, prov. Liège, Villers-le-Bouillet © Jean-Yves Baugnée

Stigmella sakhalinella mine

Betula pubescens, Overveen

same mine, detail


Oviposition at the underside of the leaf. Then a rather slender gallery, hardly widening, even towards the end. The corridor is not strongly contorted, not even in its first section; no browned spot in the leaf at the start of the mine. Sides if the corridor irregularly scalloped. The corridor mostly begins close to the leaf margin, often near the tip of the leaf. The coiled frass is brown or black, even in fresh mines; the frass fills most of the width of the corridor, but always leaves a transparent zone at either side. Pupation external; exit slit in the upper epidermis.

host plants

Betulaceae, monophagous

Betula pendula, pubescens, utilis.


Larvae in Britain from July – October (Emmet, 1983a).


BE recorded (van Nieukerken, 2006b).

NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a;, 2009). (Fauna Europaea, 2009).

LUX recorded (Ellis: Dudelange).

distribution within Europe

From Scandinavia to the Pyrenees, Italy, and Serbia, and from Britain to Central Russia (Fauna Europaea, 2009).


Yellow; described by Gustafsson & van Nieukerken (1990a).


Nepticula, Stigmella distinguenda: auct.; Stigmella discidia Schoorl & Wilkinson, 1986.


Aarvik, Bakke, Berg ao (1997a), Ahr (1966a), Arbeitsgemeinschaft Microlepidoptera in Bayern (2010a), Bengtsson (2008a), Buhr (1935a), Černý (2001a), Corley, Rosete, Romão ao (2015a), Derra, Heindel, Kolbeck ao (2010a), Diškus & Stonis (2012a), Dziurzynski (1957a), Emmet (1971a, 1983a), Gustafsson & van Nieukerken (1990a), Hartig (1939a), Hering (1927b, 1957a), Johansson ao (1990a), Klimesch (1936a, 1948a, 1950c), Kuchlein & Donner (1993a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), Kurz (2016a), Z & A Laštuvka (1997a), Maček (1999a), van Nieukerken (1986a, 2006a), van Nieukerken, A & Z Laštuvka (2006a), De Prins (1998a), De Prins & Steeman (2011a), Robbins (1991a), Schoorl & Wilkinson (1986a), Schütze (1931a), Sefrová (2005a), Skala (1939a), Skala & Zavřel (1945a), Sønderup (1949a), Steuer (1995a), Szőcs (1977a), Zoerner (1969a).

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