Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Stigmella trimaculella

Stigmella trimaculella (Haworth, 1828)

black-poplar pigmy

Stigmella trimaculella: vacated mine on Populus spec.

Populus spec., Belgium, prov. Antwerp, Meerhout © Carina Van Steenwinkel

Stigmella trimaculella: vacated mine on Populus spec.

same mine, lighted from behind

Stigmella trimaculella: vacated mine on Populus spec.

Populus spec., België, prov. Antwerpen, Mol © Carina Van Steenwinkel

Stigmella trimaculella mine

Populus x canadensis, Susteren

Stigmella trimaculella

another mine

Stigmella assimilella: vacated mine on Populus x canadensis

Populus x canadensis, ter Heijde, 19.x.2018 © Jan Scheffers: unusual, lower-surface, mine (also visible the feeding trace of Gypsonoma dealbana)


Egg either at upper- or lower-side of the leaf. The mine is an upper side corridor; the first part is rather straight and narrow, and often follows a vein for some length; the second part is much broader, sometimes almost a blotch. In the first part of the mine the frass lies in a more or less uninterrupted central line that does not occupy the full width of the gallery; in the second part the frass pattern is very variable, ranging from a narrow central line to a broad band.

host plants

Salicaceae, monophagous

Populus alba, angustifolia, balsamifera, canadensis, x canescens, carolinensis, nigra, simonii, suaveolens, tremula, trichocarpa.


Larvae in June – July and September – October (Emmet, 1983a).


BE recorded (Phegea, 2009).

NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a;, 2009).

LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009).

distribution within Europe

All Europe (Fauna Europaea, 2009).


Light yellow.


Nepticula trimaculella; Stigmella populicola (Sorhagen, 1922); Stigmella subtrimaculella Dufrane, 1949. Several authors consider St. subtrimaculella a valid species (eg Arru, 1966a; Zoerner, 1969a), that would be characterised by having a very fine frass line, while the one of trimaculella takes a good part of the width of the corridor.


Arru (1996a), Barton (2015a), Beiger (1979a), Bengtsson (2008a), Bond (2001a), Borkowski (1969a), Buhr (1935b, 1936a, 1964a), Buszko & Baraniak (1989a), Buszko & Beshkov (2004a), J Černý (2001a), Delplanque (1998a), Deutsch (2012a), Diškus & Stonis (2012a), Drăghia (1967a, 1968a, 1971a, 1972a), Emmet (1071a, 1983a), van Frankenhuyzen & Houtman (1972a), van Frankenhuyzen Houtman & Kabos (1982a), Gustafsson (1985a), Gustafsson & van Nieukerken (1990a), Hartig (1939a), Haase (1942a), Hering (1923a), Huber (1969a), Johansson ao (1990a), Kasy (1983a), Klimesch (1936a, 1950c, 1978b), Kollár (2007a), Kollár & Hrubík (2009a), Kuchlein & Donner (1993a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), Kurz (2016a), A & Z Laštuvka (1997a, 2005a, 2008a), Maček (1999a), Navickaitė, Diškus & Stonis (2014), van Nieukerken (1986a, 2006a), van Nieukerken, A & Z Laštuvka (2004a, 2006a), Lhomme (1934d), van Nieukerken, Mutanen & Doorenweerd (2012a), van Nieukerken, Zolotuhin & Mistchenko (2004a), Nowakowski (1954a), Popescu-Gorj & Drăghia (1968a), De Prins (1998a), De Prins & Steeman (2011a), Robbins (1991a), Schütze (1931a), Sefrová (2005a), Skala (1939a, 1951a), Skala & Zavřel (1945a), Sønderup (1949a), Stammer (2016a), Steuer (1995a), Surányi (1942a), Szőcs (1977a, 1978a, 1981a), Ureche (2010a), Utech (1962a), Yefremova & Kravchenko (2015a), Zoerner (1969a).

Last modified 18.i.2020