Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Trifurcula eurema

Trifurcula eurema (Tutt, 1899)

field lotus pigmy

Trifurcula eurema mine

Dorycnium pentaphyllum, Greece, nom. Fókis; from van Nieukerken (2007b)

Trifurcula eurema mine

mine with cocoon


Egg at the upperside or underside of the leaf. The mine begins as a long narrow corridor with a linear frass line. The corridor abruptly widens into a blotch that in the end may occupy almost an entire leaflet. The blotch mostly starts at the base of the leaflet, and here also most frass is concentrated. Pupation generally within the mine; in rare cases the larva leaves the mine by an exit slit in the lower epidermis.

host plants

Fabaceae, oligophagous

Dorycnium hirsutum, pentaphyllum & subsp. germanicum, rectum; Lotus corniculatus, cytisoides, maritimus, ornithopodioides, pedunculatus.

In southern Europe mainly on Dorycnium.


Larvae have been found between July and October (Emmet, 1983a).


BE recorded (Wullaert (2015a).

NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a;, 2009).

LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009).

distribution within Europe

From Scandinavia to the Iberian Peninsula, Italy, and Greece, and from Ireland to Hungary (Fauna Europaea, 2009).


Pale yellow, seeming green when still in the mine. The larva is described by Gustafsson & van Nieukerken (1990a); thorax 1-3 dorsally with 10, 10, and 8 pairs of setae, respectively.


Cirrospilus vittatus; Hemiptarsenus fulvicollis.


Nepticula, Stigmella, Levarchama eurema; Nepticula, Stigmella, Trifurcula dorycniella Suire, 1928; N. gozmanyi Szőcs, 1959.


In the Netherlands and Denmark a species of Salix repens vegetations in wet dune slacks (Kuchlein ao, 1988a, Johansson ao,1990a), mainly on Lotus uliginosus,

Possibly an additional character discriminating the species from T. cryptella is the frass colour: black in cryptella, brown in eurema; however, the constancy of this difference is still uncertain (Emmet, 1983a). [Hering (1967a) describes the frass as “black” in both species.]


Bengtsson (2008a), Emmet (1983a), Gustafsson (1985a), Gustafsson & van Nieukerken (1990a), Hering (1957a, 1960a, 1967a), Johansson ao (1990a), Kasy (1985a), Klimesch (1940a, 1950c, 1956c), Kuchlein & Donner (1993a), Kuchlein, Gielis, Huisman, ao (1988a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), Laštůvka & Laštůvka (1997a, 2009b, 2011a, 2014a, 2015a), Mifsud & Askew (2019a), Navickaitė, Diškus & Stonis (2014), van Nieukerken (1986a), van Nieukerken, Biesenbaum & Wittland (2010a), van Nieukerken, Gielis, Huisman ao (1993a) van Nieukerken, Laštůvka & Laštůvka (2004a, 2006a), Robbins (1991a), Skala (1939a), Szőcs (1968a, 1977a, 1981a), Wullaert (2015a).

Last modified 26.iv.2022