Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Zimmermannia atrifrontella

Zimmermannia atrifrontella (Stainton, 1851)

oak-bark pigmy

on Quercus


Larvae make an inconspicuous tortuous, essentially vertical gallery in the still smooth bark of not too old branches and stems. They leave the mine to pupate in a brown cocoon. Mines preferably on the sun-lit sides of the branch. Vacated mines become completely filled with callus which causes them to burst open.

host plants

Fagaceae, monophagous

Quercus pubescens, robur.


The larvae live at least for a year, in the north possibly two years; they are full-grown in May-July.

BENELUX; still not yet known from Belgium.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2018).


Larva very elongate, yellow, head brown; no ventral plates (Johansson ao, Gustafsson & van Nieukerken).


Trifurcula, Ectoedemia, atrifrontella.


Bengtsson (2008a), Borkowski (1969a), Diškus & Stonis (2012a), Gustafsson (1985a), Gustafsson & van Nieukerken (1990a) Hering, (1934g), Huisman & Koster (1995a, 2000a), Huisman, Koster, van Nieukerken & Ulenberg (2001a, 2004a), Huisman, Kuchlein, van Nieukerken ao (1986a), Johansson, Nielsen, van Nieukerken & Gustafsson (1990a), Klimesch (1936a, 1942a, 1950c, 1953a), Kuchlein & Donner (1993a), Laštůvka & Laštůvka (1997a, 2005a, 2011a, 2014a), Maček (1999a), Navickaitė, Diškus & Stonis (2014), van Nieukerken (1085a, 1986a), van Nieukerken, Doorenweerd, Hoare & Davis (2016a), van Nieukerken, Laštůvka & Laštůvka (2004a, 2006a, 2010a), Pröse (1995a), Robbins (1991a), Skala (1939a), Steurer (1988a), Stonis, Navickaitė, Rocienė ao (2013a), Šulcs (1996a), Szőcs (1977a).

Last modified 5.ii.2020