Zimmermannia atrifrontella (Stainton, 1851)

oak-bark pigmy

on Quercus

mine

Larvae make an inconspicuous tortuous, essentially vertical gallery in the still smooth bark of not too old branches and stems. They leave the mine to pupate in a brown cocoon. Mines preferably on the sun-lit sides of the branch. Vacated mines become completely filled with callus which causes them to burst open.

hostplants

Fagaceae, monophagous

Quercus pubescens, robur.

phenology

The larvae live at least for a year, in the north possibly two years; they are full-grown in May-July.

BENELUX

Microlepidoptera.nl; still not yet known from Belgium.

distribution within Europe

(PESI, 2018).

larva

Larva very elongate, yellow, head brown; no ventral plates (Johansson ao, Gustafsson & van Nieukerken).

synonyms

Trifurcula, Ectoedemia, atrifrontella.

references

Bengtsson (2008a), Borkowski (1969a), Diškus & Stonis (2012a), Gustafsson (1985a), Gustafsson & van Nieukerken (1990a) Hering, (1934g), Huisman & Koster (1995a, 2000a), Huisman, Koster, van Nieukerken & Ulenberg (2001a), Johansson, Nielsen, van Nieukerken & Gustafsson (1990a), Klimesch (1936a, 1942a, 1950c, 1953a), Kuchlein & Donner (1993a), Laštůvka & Laštůvka (1997a, 2005a, 2011a, 2014a), Maček (1999a), Navickaitė, Diškus & Stonis (2014), van Nieukerken (1085a, 1986a), van Nieukerken, Doorenweerd, Hoare & Davis (2016a), van Nieukerken, Laštůvka & Laštůvka (2004a, 2006a, 2010a), Pröse (1995a), Robbins (1991a), Skala (1939a), Steurer (1988a), Stonis, Navickaitė, Rocienė ao (2013a), Šulcs (1996a), Szőcs (1977a).

mod 27.xi.2018