Globally a small family, with less than ten species in Europe (Davis, 1987a; Parenti, 2000a), but all conspicuous, and some common, leafminers. Frass is ejected from the mine, through openings made for the purpose. The inside of the mine is lined with much silk, which gives them a light colour. The silk somewhat shrinks, causing the mines to contract and bulge a bit, in fact creating tentiform mines. The larvae have a dark brown head and anal shield; they often lie in the mine curved like a horseshoe.
Davis (1987a), Parenti (2000a), Sato (1993a), Toll (1959b).