Carpinus betulus, from González-Fragoso (1925a): cross section through an uredinium
spermogonia and aecia not known. Uredinia hypophyllous, corresponding with yellow spots at the upperside, delimited by the leaf venation; at first covered by the epidermis, then by a peridium that releases the spores through a central pore; spores sparsely spinulate, apex smooth. Telia mostly hypophyllous, small, yellow when fresh; spores formed subepidermally.
Brandenburger (1985a: 55), Gäumann (1959a), González-Fragoso (1925a), Huseyin & Selcuk (2004a), Klenke & Scholler (2015a), Poelt & Zwetko (1997a), Schmid-Heckel (1985a), Termorshuizen & Swertz (2011a).