Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Claviceps purpurea

Claviceps purpurea (Fries) Tulasne, 1853

rye ergot fungus

on Poaceae

Claviceps purpurea in Molinia

Molinia caerulea, Hoenderloo, Hoge Veluwe: affected plant

Claviceps purpurea in Molinia

detail

Claviceps purpurea in Molinia

sclerotia (with infection by the hyperparasite Fusarium lolii)

Claviceps purpurea: sclerotia on Lolium perenne

Lolium perenne, Belgium, prov. Namur, Leignon © Jean-Yves Baugnée

Claviceps purpurea on Phlum pratense

Phleum pratense, Loenen (Ge) © Arnold Grosscurt

host plants

Poaceae, oligophagous

Agrostis; Alopecurus arundinaceus, geniculatus, pratensis; Ammophila arenaria; Anthoxanthum odoratum; Arrhenatherum elatius; Avena; Brachypodium pinnatum, sylvaticum; Bromopsisinermis; Bromus; Calamagrostis epigeios, varia; Dactylis glomerata; Deschampsia cespitosa; Elymus; Elytrigia atherica, repens; Festuca rubra, valesiaca; Glyceria fluitans; Holcus lanatus, mollis; Hordeum murinum, vulgare; Koeleria pyramidata; Leymus arenarius; Lolium perenne; Molinia caerulea; Nardus stricta; Phalaris canariensis; Phalaroides arundinacea; Phleum pratense; Phragmites australis; Poa; Schedonorus arundinaceus, giganteus, pratensis; Secale cereale; Sesleria alba, caerulea; Spartina anglica; Stipa pekinensis; Trisetum flavescens; Triticum.

Elytrgia atherica and Spartina anglica are recorded by Lennart van IJzerloo. On Avena extremely rare.

synonyms

Claviceps microcephala (Wallroth) Tulasne, 1853. Pažoutová ao (2000a) have demonstrated that within the species C. purpurea three, not sharply defined, chemo-races do exist, growing on a wide variatie of grass species, in moderately dry, wet, and brackish vegetations, respectively. This eliminates the basis for (among others) microcephala as a separate species. C. sesleriae Stäger, 1906, is cited as a synonym of purpurea by Pažoutová (2002a).

notes

Buhr (1964b) and other authors do not consider C. purpurea a true gall. Indeed does the sclerotium entirely consist of fungal tissue, therefore isn’t a gall. But the malformation of the inflorescence that occurs at least under strong infestation certainly is a gall.

parasites

Fusarium lolii, Neobarya aurantiaca.

references

Blumer (1946a), Buhr (1964a, 1965a), Chinery (2011a), Doppelbaur & Doppelbaur (1973a), Ellis & Ellis (1997a), Gönczö & Révay (1981a), Groom (2011a), Jage, Klenke, Kruse ao (2016a), Jage, Kruse, Kummer ao (2013a), Jage, Scholler & Klenke (2010a), Klenke & Scholler (2015a), Kozłowska, Mułenko & Heluta (2015a), Kruse (2014a, 2019a), Kruse & Jage (2014a), Losa España (1942a), Melgarejo Nárdiz, García-Jiménez, Jordá Gutiérrez ao (2010a, Mułenko, Sałata & Wołczańska (1995a), Negrean (1995a, 1996b), Pažoutová (2002a), Pažoutová ao (2000a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Roskam (2009a), Ruszkiewicz-Michalska (2006a), Scheuer & Bechter (2012a), Schmid-Heckel (1985a), Scholler & Schubert (1993a), Unamuno (1941a).

Last modified 29.x.2021